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常见句型语法归纳          【字体:
常见句型语法归纳
作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2006-7-12

高三毕业班英语温书材料

 

常见句型语法归纳

 

l         词组和句型补充

1.  It’s (high) time (that) sb. did sth.  该是做某事的时间了。

[sb. should do sth..    

 c.f. It is /was the first time (that)sb. has/had done sth(定从)

  It was for the first time sthat sb. did sth.(强调)

2.  The factory is 15 miles (to the) southeast of the city.这家工厂位于城市东南面15英里处。

   Southeast of the city lie two lakes. 城市东南面有两个湖. (倒装)

3.  hit/strike/beat/hurt sb.on the head/shoulder/back.

[in the face/eye.             

C.f. take/catch/lead sb. by the arm/hand/nose

4. *be of great/ no/ much/ little/ a little/ some + help/ use/ interest/ value/ importance/ success/ necessity  具有

= be very/not +adj.(helpful/ useful/interesting / valuable/important/successful/necessary)

*be of great courage / determination / wisdom / ability/ strong will/high quality具有

5.The two things are of the same colour./age/shape/size/weight/ length/ depth/ width…属于

                   [an colour/age/shape/size/weight/ length/ depth/ width…

  C.f …are of different colours/ages/shapes/sizes…

6.A is three times as big/long/deep/wide as B. (注意倍数的位置)

              [bigger/longer/deeper/wider than B

              [the size/length/depth/width of B.

7. 与其说不如说

1) He is more frightened than hurt. 与其说他受伤不如说他吓坏了。

He is more clever than brave.  注意不能说成He is cleverer than braver

2He isn’t so much ill as depressed. = He’s depressed rather than ill.

与其说他病了不如说他很使沮丧。

8A is no better /more interesting than B = A is as bad/ dull as B 一样的不

  c.f. A is not better/more interesting than B.  A不如B/有趣

9. cannot + 比较级 (含有最高级的意思)

 I can’t agree more. 我非常同意. It couldn’t be worse. 非常糟糕.

You couldn’t have chosen a better gift for me.你给我挑了一个极好的礼物.

  10. cannot/never be too careful越细心越好/can never thank him enough 万分感激

11..A is as good a student as B.       (注意这4个句型中adj. a 的顺序)

 It is too difficult a job to do.

 He is so good a student that we like him.

 How fine a day it is!

12*would rather do A than do B=prefer to do A rather do B= would do A rather rhan do B

 * would rather  sb did sth.

13.Sb. has difficulty in doing sth./with sth./ There is some difficulty in doing sth. (注意difficulty 为不可数=trouble)   c.f. meet with a lot of difficulties

14.Do you mind if I do…?/Would you mind if I did?/  

Do/Would you mind (my) doing?—Certainly not./ I’m sorry but I do/you had better not.

15. It’s (just)like sb. to do sth. 某人恰恰就是。。。这个样子。

16.apart from除了以外(=except(for);besides 注意except 不能放句首,但apart from 则可)

All the children like music apart from Bobby. =except

除了博比外所有的孩子都喜欢音乐。

Apart from being too large, the trousers don't suit me. (不可用except;= besides)

这条裤子不但太大,而且我穿着也不合适。

Apart from a few words, I do not know any French at all.(不可用except)

除了很少的几句外,我对法语一无所知。

  17.注意以下几个It is… 的句型

It was not long  before he came back.过不了多久他回来了。(it指时间,后跟时间状从)

It was 3 years before he came back.过了3年他回来了。 (同上)

.It is five years since he left Fuzhou. 他离开福州5年了。  (同上)

It was midnight/ 2 a.m. when I got here yesterday. (同上)

It was at five that he came back. (强调)

It was five years ago that he left Fuzhou.  (强调句型)

18. He was walking in the street when he heard his name called.  (when = and suddenly)

   He had just lain down when there was a knock on the door.

   He was going to/was about to leave when it began to pour.

19It was not until he failed that he realized that he was too careless.  (强调)

    c.f. Not until he failed did he realize that he was too careless.     (倒装)

20.       I did nothing but do sth/ had nothing but do 

     c.f. I had no choice but to do sth.

:  What I want to do is (to) have a good sleep.

21.       He is working harder and harder and he is making more and more progress.(越来越)

c.f. The harder you work , the more progress you make.(就越…)

22. Do you want a go?=Do you want a try?

23. .注意以下几个带it 的句型

  I hate/like it when people speak with their mouths full.

  I would appreciate it if you can drop in on us now and then.

  You may depend on it that they will support you.

  I’ll see to it that everything is all right.

  Don’t take it for granted that they will support you.

If it is convenient for you, …(×If you are convenient)

24. 抽象名词具体化: 一种,一类, 一份,一场,一阵,一件,一个”,前面往往有adj.修饰

   a great success, a big failure (指成功或失败的人和事), a great/pleasant surprise

   a great disappointment, a great help 好帮手, a green tea, a heavy rain, a strong wind

   a coffee ,a big/delicious supper, a good memory, a good knowledge of English

25. 常用 What来问的句型:

   What is the popiulation/ distance/attitude/price/address/height/depth/width/length/size?

26..插入语:

1)    by the way  顺便说一下

on one hand… one the other hand 一方面,  另一方面

for one thing,… for another (also)

in short in briefin a word  简言之

in general 一般说来

in addition to…), besides apart from…此外

2)    judging from…根据判断

generally speaking 总的说来

talking/ speaking of…谈到..

Considering…’, taking…into consideration,  Given…考虑到

supposing  (suppose)…假如

3) to tell (you) the truth 说实话

to be honest (frank) 老实说

to be sure 无可否认, 诚然

to be exact 确切说

to begin with 首先

to make things/matters worse 使事情更糟糕的是

4) worse still= what’s worse  更糟糕的是

  what’s more =besides 况且

believe it or not 信不信由你

27.常见不用被动的情况

1)      wash/ cut/ sell/ read well 好洗,好切,畅销,读起来朗朗上口

burn/ tear/break easily 易燃/ /

write well/smoothly 好写

2) The door/window won’t open/close.打不开/关不上

3)      主语+ need/want/require + doing=主语+ need/want/require + to be done

4)      sth.+ be worth doing

5)      主语+ feel/sound/taste/smell/look +表语

6)      主语+ be + adj.(hard/easy/heavy/comforrable) + to do

7)      sb.+ be to blame 某人应受到责备

8)      sth.+ run out = sb. run out of / use up sth. 

28. 多个形容词排列的顺序:

  (定词)、数(词)、描(绘)+大(小)、形(状)、新(旧)、颜(色)+国(籍)、

材(料)、(用)途

a beautiful new large red brick dining hall一个漂亮的新的红砖砌成的大餐厅

l         语法要点归纳

I.定语从句:

 1.只用that不用which:   先行词为:最高级,序数词,不定代词,(all,much,no,nothing,anything,everything,a lotmuch;先行词前有the very, the only,just the修饰,先行词既指人又指物时。

2.只用which不用that:   介词后,非限制性定从中指物或代整句。

3.只用 as不用that/which:   such/ the same…as 搭配中;指代整句,有“正如“之意,常见as we know/expect, 可放句首(which不放句首。)

4.that/which 还是用when/where:    主要看句子是否完整,有否缺主,宾,表。有则用that,否则用whenwhere.

This is the factory where he works//that /which he visited.

It was a terrible daythat /whichI’ll never forget.// when the accident happened.

5.that/which 能否省:     在句中做宾语的可省。但在介词后及非限制性定从中不能省。

II. 名词性从句:

1that 用法:     that 在句中无词义。不充当任何成分。宾从中的 that 可省。但 以下两种情况不省:

We think it impossible that he will come back this evening. (it做形式宾语)

                        He told me (that) he would come by air and that he will arrive at 10 pm.(第二个宾从)

2if wether:      if 只能放在宾语从句中。而whether 则可放在所有名词从句中。

                    Whether…or…还可引起让步状从。

4.  what  的使用:   首先要看句子是否完整,有否缺主,宾,表。有则用what=the                 man/thing that; whatever=anything that,可由此变换成定语从句。

You can take what you like best.= You can take the thing that you like best.

He is not what he used to be. = He is not the man that he used to be.

5. 语序:       名词性从句一律用陈述语序。

    6. 虚拟语气的使用:在order, insist, suggest, propose, demand, require, request, advise引导的宾从中需用should或原形。(但suggest表明、insist 坚持认为则不)

      在动词wish后根据时态需用三种形式:did/were;  had done;  would/could do.

      在主从It is important/necessary/strange /surprising that sb. should do sth.(或should have donee.g. It is surprising that he should have failed.注意虚拟语气的使用。

    7.表从的两个句型: The reason is that…… (注意不能说 The reason is because…)

                      He is ill. It/This/That is why he can’t come.

                    c.f. He can’t come. This/That is because he is ill.

8.同位语从句与定语从句的区别:(要分清that 的作用)

              The news (that) he told us was wonderful 定语从句(thattold的宾语)

The news that he had won was wonderful. 同位语从句(that无意义,不可省)

III. 情态动词:

1.  表判断: must may can

              肯定句                             否定句:

must be +表语(或doing                  can’t be+表语(或doing       (现在)   

must have done   一定              can’t (couldn’t)have done 不可能 (过去/完成) }

may (not) do be+表语    也许(不) (现在)  

may (not) have done  也许(不)       (完成)

might (not) have done也许(不)        (过去)

                       疑问句:(只能用can)

Can the news be true?  What can he be doing ? What can have happened to him?

Who can it be?       Can it be Li Ming who did it?  (强调句型)

反意问句

        He must be a student, isn’t he?

        You must have done your homework, haven’t you?

        You must have seen the film last night, didn’t you?

        He can’t have gone to bed, has he?

   注意区别 should can There should be no problem.应该没问题。

                       It can be dangerous. 这会是很危险的。(表示客观、理论上的可能性。)

2.虚拟:

 A)              从句:                      主句:

     If sb. did/were……,                  sth. would/could/might do….     (现在)   

     If sb. had done…..,                  sth. would/could/might have done   (过去)

        If sb. did/were…                    sth. would/could/might do…       (将来)

            [should do…

             were todo…

B)  needn’t have done    本不必          should(n’t) have done       本(不)该

                                      [ought(n’t) to have done

    plan/want/hope/mean/wouldshouldlikelove to have done本打算/想做某事

C)        If only+ 从句:(虚拟语气)= How I wish + 从句;

If only he were alive! (现在虚拟)

If only I had passed the exam!(过去虚拟)

If only I could fly to the moon someday! (将来虚拟)

D) but for=if it were not/hadn’t been for 要不是。。。的话, (接虚拟语气的句子)

      But for your help, I wouldn’t have succeeded.

    D)as if…:  He talked as if he knew everything. 但:It seems/looks as if he is ill.( 不要用虚拟)

3. shall will

1) 表示征求对方的意见:

 Shall I/ he do sth.?   ( 一、三人称问句)

 Will you do sth.? ( 二人称问句)

2)      表示意愿

will 用于任何人称,表示主语的意愿)

I/We/You/He/She/ They will do sth. 

Shall 用于二、三人称,表示说话人的意愿;含命令、警告与许诺

You/He shall do it whether you/he want(s) or not.  (命令)

Nothing shall stop us. 任何东西都无法阻挡我们。(决心)

You shall have the book as soon as I finish it.(许诺)

IV..不定式与动名词的区别:

1.  主语:To see is to believe./ Seeing is believing.

It is important to do it./It is no use/good doing sth.

         Tom’s being late made the teacher angry.

2.  宾语:以下动词常跟不定式做宾语:

agree,cecide,expect,fail,hope,wish,learn,plan,promise,refuse,want,intend,pretend,manage,know(how)afford, would like ,used to, ask, demand, choose, offer, seem, happen, appear

以下动词常跟动名词做宾语:

finish,enjoy,mind,practise,suggest,risk,advoid,escape,excuse,keep,miss,admit,allow,preventpermit, understand, give up, imagine, appreciate, put off,( be worth/be busy+doing)

以下动词跟动名词或不定式做宾语都可,意思一样

 like, begin, start continue, hate, love, delay

e.g. I like swimming, but I don’t like to swim today. (动名词强调习惯动作,不定式强调具体动作。)

注意以下动词跟动名词或不定式的区别:

consider doing (what/how) to do   考虑做    try to do  努力/尽力做

       [sb. to be/ to have done    认为        [doing  尝试做

advise/allow/permit/forbid doing            mean to do  打算做

 建设/许可/禁止(某人)[ sb. to do              [doing  意味着

feel like doing                           regret to do (常为:to say, to tell you) 遗憾的说       

[would like to do   很想做                      [ doing 后悔做过

 

remember/forget doing 记得/忘记曾经做     stop to do  停下来去做

[ to do 记得/忘记去做           [doing 停止做

              

can’thelp to do(不能)帮助做      sb.+ need/want to do sth. ()需要做

can’t help doing  禁不住做         sth.+ need/want/require doing(事需要做

[to be done

 

used to do  (过去)常常做             prefer doing to doing

be used to do  被用来做                   to do rather than do 宁可做而不做

be used to doing 习惯做

                                  go on to do 接着做另一件事

                                       [doing 继续做同一件事

以下动词短语中的to 是介词,后要跟动名词:

stick to, lead to, see to, look forward to, devote…to.., refer to, get down to, be used to, pay attention to, come close to, object to(反对)., on one’s way to becoming(即将成为)

 

V. 不定式与分词的区别:

               不定式                               分词

to do                                  doing

to be done                              done

to be doing                             being done

to have done                            having done

to have been done                        having been done

not to do                               not doing

               不定式                               分词

定语:

1.常表将来:                           (现在分词):主动,进行, 经常,

                                      (过去分词): 被动,完成,经常,

e.g. The house to be built will be a hotel.              The workers building the house are from the north.

I have a lot of clothes to wash.                  The house built last year is a hotel.

c.f. “Do you have any clothes to be washed?”the maid asked.     The factory building the bikes

is good.

The bikes made in the factory are good.

 

   2.以下名词常跟不定词做定语:

time, way, chance, right, reason, need, plan, promise

purpose, hope, wish ,effort, decision, the first..+to do

表语:

   My hope is to go to college.                    My job is tiring. So I often feel tired.

 

状语:

1.  目的 : (in order) to do…  (句首或句末),  1. 时间:Hearing the cry, he rushed out.

 so as to do… (句末)                    Having finished the work, he went home.

   2. 结果: too…to, …enough to,                2. 条件:Given enough time, we would do it better.

          so…as to, only to(未预料的结果)               Once seen, the film will never be forgotten.

  He woke up only to find everyone was gone.

   3.原因:                                    3.原因: Having lived in the country for years, he knows how to do farmwork.  

be+ adj.+to do                    

We were happy./glad/agry to hear the news.     Born in America, he was good at English.

 

不定式                                       分词

   4.固定用法:                                4。伴随:They came in, singing and dancing.

A)     sth.+ be+ adj.( easy/difficult/nice/fot/heavy/         They came in, followed by a boy                                                                  

expensive/comfortable)+ to do (主表被)

B)      主语+ be said(known/reported/believed/

thought/considered/supposed)+to do/to have done

宾补:

1.以下动词常跟不定式做宾补:              1.see,hear, feel(听观感)+ O+ doing/done              

tell, ask, beg, encourage, invite, advise, allow, permit, wish,  2.find  + O. + doing/done 

order, force, want, like, expect, warn, persuade, require    3.have,get,leave,keep+ O+ doing/done                                                      

2.Vt. + O. + do (to 不定式)                 4.make, let  +  O   + done

see, notice,watch,hear,listern to, feel  (听、 观、感)       5.want, wish + O + (to be) done

make,let, have, help(sb.(to)do )      (使、让、帮)         6. catch + O. + doing

 但:get/leave sb. to do                                7. let + O. + (be) done

be seen/heard/made + to do                             8. with + O. + { doing/done/to do}

VI.倒装:

A) 半倒:

1.Only+ Only in this way can he finish it.

     : Only I knew about it.

   2.否定词:Never shall I forget it. (No wonder+句子/No matter+疑问词/In no time等不在此例)

         Hardly(Scarcely) had we got home when the rain poured down.

        =No sooner had we got home than the rain poured down.

      3.So 放句首:So angry was he that he couldn’t say a word

                   (表示如此。。。以至。。。)

You are honest.  So am I. (表示某人也是如此)

       4.Young/Child as he was,(Though he is young/a child)he is clever.( 注意a省略)

        Try as he did, he still failed again and again.(as表示尽管的意思)

        5.Had you come,(=If you had come), you would have met him.(虚拟)

          Should he come tomorrow(or: Were he to come tomorrow), we would be saved.

  B)全倒 1.Here/There 句型:Here comes the bus./There goes the bell.

            2.方向副词Up flew the balloon/Out rushed the boys

(*注意:1,2点主语为人称代词不倒 Out he rushed.  Here he comes  )

        3.修辞需要:(常见介词短语表地点放句首或表语提前)

At the foot of the hill ran a river./ Present at the meetings were some scientists.

Gone are the days when we used foreign oil./ Such were his last word

: 有关语法大家还可参看«2005年福建省高考自主命题复习纲要»第一章第三节“语法精要“ P25—40

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